Phyllostachys

Phyllostachys

76 Species

Distribution Map

Phyllostachys comes from 'phyllon', meaning leaf, and 'stachys', meaning spike. In China, where this bamboo grows native, it is also called Gangzhu Shu, meaning firm bamboo genus.

Phyllostachys belongs to the tribe Bambuseae, and sub-tribe Shibataeinae. Culms usually have a tendency to zigzag from node to node and are distinguished by a pronounced groove in the culm above each branch-bearing node. Because of this groove (called sulcus) it is one of the most easily identifiable genera of bamboo. The branches open from top to bottom, generally in sub-equal pairs at each node, with a smaller branch between. In general, the culm sheaths fall off quickly.

The Phyllostachys genus include many resistant species with excellent mechanical properties of importance to human economy. In China, this genus is the principal source of paper pulp, major source for construction and handicrafts, and an important source for edible shoots.

Phyllostachys is a temperate bamboo but also grows in semi-tropical climates, therefore it is widely cultivated around the world. Most of the species require full sun and spread aggressively (runners).

Did You Know?

The Chinese Golden Bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea) was first introduced in Alabama, USA in 1882. That same year, Thomas Edison began his first light-bulb factory using carbonized bamboo filaments.

There are 76 species and approximately 140 varieties and cultivars of Phyllostachys. Most species are frost resistant, and do not show severe damage at the min. temperature values indicated.

Records - of

Species Name

Min. Temp

Diameter

Height

Phyllostachys acuta -13°C 40-60 mm 6-9 m
Phyllostachys altiligulata   50 mm 10 m
Phyllostachys angusta -15°C 30-50 mm 6-10 m
Phyllostachys arcana -20°C 20-40 mm 7-8 m
Phyllostachys arcana 'Yellowstone' -13°C 40 mm 5-8 m
Phyllostachys aristata   20 mm 3 m
Phyllostachys atrovaginata -15°C 30-50 mm 5-8 m
Phyllostachys aurea      
Phyllostachys aurea 'Albovariegata' -12°C 40 mm 8 m
Phyllostachys aurea 'Flavescens-inversa' -10°C   5-9 m
Phyllostachys aurea 'Kansai' -10°C 30-45 mm 5-9 m
Phyllostachys aurea 'Koi' -10°C    
Phyllostachys aurea f. aurea -12°C 30-70 mm 6-12 m
Phyllostachys aurea f. takemurai -10°C 70 mm 10 m
Phyllostachys aureosulcata -18°C 2-6 mm 6-10 m
Phyllostachys aureosulcata 'Harbin'      
Phyllostachys aureosulcata f. aureosulcata      
Phyllostachys aureosulcata f. pekinensis      
Phyllostachys aureosulcata f. spectabilis -18°C 10-50 mm 5-8 m
Phyllostachys aureosulcata f. aureocaulis -18°C    
Phyllostachys aurita   20-30 mm 3-6 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides -18°C 50-160 mm 10-24 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Albovariegata'      
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Kawadana'      
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Subvariegata' -10°C 40-60 mm 4-10 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Castilloni' -10°C 60-80 mm 9-12 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'McClure's Castillon' -10°C 60-80 mm 9-12 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Castilloni-inversa' -13°C   10-12 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Holochrysa' -10°C 60-80 mm 8-10 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Kashirodake'      
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Violascens' -15°C 60-90 mm 12-17 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Katashibo'      
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Marliacea'   50-70 mm 7-8 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Tanakae'   50-100 mm 5-12 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Mix' -15°C 10-50 mm 5-10 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'Geniculata'   75 mm 13-15 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides 'White Crookstem'      
Phyllostachys bambusoides f. shouzhu -10°C 70-130 mm 10-20 m
Phyllostachys bambusoides f. lacrima-deae      
Phyllostachys bambusoides f. nigrostriata      
Phyllostachys bissetii -15°C 20-25 mm 6-7 m
Phyllostachys breviligula   20-25 mm 4-5 m
Phyllostachys cantoniensis   3-5 mm 1 m
Phyllostachys camea   14-15 mm 2.5 m
Phyllostachys chlorina   15 mm 3 m
Phyllostachys circumpilis -7°C 30-45 mm 5-7 m
Phyllostachys compressa   17 mm 2-4 m
Phyllostachys concava   20-50 mm 5-7 m
Phyllostachys decora -15°C 40-50 mm 8-9 m
Phyllostachys dulcis -13°C 40-70 mm 7-12 m
Phyllostachys edulis -18°C 100-180 mm 12-24 m
Phyllostachys edulis 'Aureovariegata'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Moonbeam'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Okina'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Bicolor'     15-20 m
Phyllostachys edulis 'Viridisulcata'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Tao Kiang'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Venusta'   20-30 mm 5 m
Phyllostachys edulis 'Nabeshimana'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Hsiung's Grammica'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Lutea'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Gimmei'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Heterocycla'   30-100 mm 4-12 m
Phyllostachys edulis 'Subconvexa   30-60 mm 4-12 m
Phyllostachys edulis 'Buddha's Belly'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Dance Frock'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Tubaeformis'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Obtusangula'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Quadrangulata'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Gracilis'   30-60 mm 7-10 m
Phyllostachys edulis 'Rigid'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Early Purple'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Oboro'      
Phyllostachys edulis 'Anderson' -21°C 180 mm 22.5 m
Phyllostachys edulis f. edulis -15°C 70-200 mm 15-25 m
Phyllostachys edulis f. epruinosa      
Phyllostachys elegans -13°C 55 mm 8-10 m
Phyllostachys erecta   20 mm 4 m
Phyllostachys fimbriligula   50 mm 9 m
Phyllostachys flexuosa -13°C 20-40 mm 4-7 m
Phyllostachys glabrata -7°C 30-40 mm 6-7 m
Phyllostachys glauca -18°C 60-100 mm 10-14 m
Phyllostachys glauca f. yunzhu -15°C 15-50 mm 5-10 m
Phyllostachys glauca var. variabilis      
Phyllostachys guizhouensis   80 mm 16 m
Phyllostachys helva   15-20 mm 4 m
Phyllostachys heteroclada -11°C 20-30 mm 3-4 m
Phyllostachys heteroclada f. denigrata      
Phyllostachys hispida   10-20 mm 2-3.5 m
Phyllostachys humilis

-16°C

15-30 mm

2-5 m

Phyllostachys incarnata -11°C 30-40 mm 4-6 m
Phyllostachys iridescens -15°C 60-100 mm 8-12 m
Phyllostachys iridescens f. luteosulcata      
Phyllostachys iridescens f. striata      
Phyllostachys kwangsiensis -15°C 40-100 mm 8-16 m
Phyllostachys lithophila   40-120 mm 3-12 m
Phyllostachys Iofushanensis   20-30 mm 3-4.5 m
Phyllostachys makinoi   70-100 mm 12-20 m
Phyllostachys mannii   40-60 mm 9-12 m
Phyllostachys meyeri -11°C 50-70 mm 9-11 m
Phyllostachys meyeri f. sphaeroidea      
Phyllostachys nidularia -12°C 30-50 mm 8-10 m
Phyllostachys nidularia 'June Barbara'   40 mm 10 m
Phyllostachys nidularia f. farcta -10°C 10-50 mm 5-10 m
Phyllostachys nidularia f. glabrovagina      
Phyllostachys nidularia f. vexillaris      
Phyllostachys nidularia f.mirabilis      
Phyllostachys nidularia f. speciosa      
Phyllostachys nidularia f. sulfurea      
Phyllostachys nigella   30-50 mm 5-8 m
Phyllostachys nigra   20-40 mm 3-7 m
Phyllostachys nigra 'Henonis Albovariegata'      
Phyllostachys nigra 'Basinigra'      
Phyllostachys nigra 'Boryana' -15°C 75-110 mm 15-20 m
Phyllostachys nigra 'Tosaensis'      
Phyllostachys nigra 'Flavescens'      
Phyllostachys nigra 'Fulva'     10-16 m
Phyllostachys nigra 'Hanchiku'      
Phyllostachys nigra 'Megurochiku' -15°C 90 mm 16-17 m
Phyllostachys nigra 'Okina'      
Phyllostachys nigra 'Othello'      
Phyllostachys nigra 'Shimadake'   100 mm 18 m
Phyllostachys nigra 'Bicolor'      
Phyllostachys nigra 'Sujidake'      
Phyllostachys nigra 'Mejiro'      
Phyllostachys nigra 'Pendula'      
Phyllostachys nigra f. nigra -15°C 20-50 mm 4-12 m
Phyllostachys nigra f. punctata -15°C 10-50 mm 5-12 m
Phyllostachys nigra f.muchisasa   50 mm 12-13 m
Phyllostachys nigra f. henonis -13°C 50-100 mm 12-20 m
Phyllostachys nigra f. asagi      
Phyllostachys nigra f. usuguro      
Phyllostachys nigrivagina   110 mm 12 m
Phyllostachys nuda -13°C 30-50 mm 8-11 m
Phyllostachys nuda 'Ink-finger'      
Phyllostachys nuda f. Iocalis -13°C 25 mm 4-5 m
Phyllostachys nuda f. lucida      
Phyllostachys parvifolia -10°C 50-80 mm 8-12 m
Phyllostachys parvifolia f. lignosa      
Phyllostachys pingyangensis   80 mm 16 m
Phyllostachys platyglossa -7°C 30-50 mm 7-9 m
Phyllostachys platyglossa f. leucodermis      
Phyllostachys praecox -12°C 20-80 mm 5-11 m
Phyllostachys praecox f. notata      
Phyllostachys praecox f. viridisulcata      
Phyllostachys praecox f. prevernalis      
Phyllostachys primotina   70 mm 9 m
Phyllostachys prominens -7°C 40-80 mm 7-11 m
Phyllostachys propinqua -18°C 30-50 mm 6-10 m
Phyllostachys propinqua f. lanuginosa      
Phyllostachys purpurata -12°C 20-30 mm 5-7 m
Phyllostachys purpurata 'Straightstem' -12°C 30-40 mm 8-10 m
Phyllostachys purpurata 'Solidstem' -21°C 20 mm 4-6 m
Phyllostachys purpurata 'Decurtata'      
Phyllostachys purpureomaculata   4-6 mm 1-1.5 m
Phyllostachys retusa   30-40 mm 6-8 m
Phyllostachys rigida   30 mm 7-8 m
Phyllostachys rivalis   15-20 mm 4 m
Phyllostachys robustiramea -14°C 30-60 mm 5-10 m
Phyllostachys rubicunda -7°C 27-45 mm 3-6 m
Phyllostachys rubromarginata -15°C 20-70 mm 5-16 m
Phyllostachys rubromarginata f. castigata   20 mm 6 m
Phyllostachys rutila   30-60 mm 8-11 m
Phyllostachys sapida   12-30 mm 4-7 m
Phyllostachys sedan      
Phyllostachys shuchengensis   40-60 mm 5-6 m
Phyllostachys stimulosa -13°C 34 mm 8 m
Phyllostachys stimulosa f. unifoliata      
Phyllostachys subulata   6-8 mm 1-1.5 m
Phyllostachys sulphurea      
Phyllostachys sulphurea 'Mitis'      
Phyllostachys sulphurea 'Robert Young' -12°C    
Phyllostachys sulphurea 'Houzeau' -12°C 50-75 mm 9-14 m
Phyllostachys sulphurea 'Viridisulcata      
Phyllostachys sulphurea f. sulphurea -12°C 30-50 mm 7-10 m
Phyllostachys sulphurea f. tricolor      
Phyllostachys sulphurea f. viridis -15°C 40-100 mm 9-15 m
Phyllostachys sulphurea f. laqueata      
Phyllostachys tianmuensis -18°C 30-40 mm 7-8 m
Phyllostachys tianmuensis f. flexicaulis      
Phyllostachys varioauriculata   20-30 mm 3-4 m
Phyllostachys varioauriculata var. glabrata      
Phyllostachys verrucosa   12 mm 3 m
Phyllostachys villosa   15 mm 4 m
Phyllostachys violascens      
Phyllostachys violascens 'Source Bleue'      
Phyllostachys virella   50 mm 6-9 m
Phyllostachys viridiglaucescens -13°C 20-80 mm 6-14 m
Phyllostachys viridiglaucescens 'Richelieu'      
Phyllostachys vivax -12°C 40-130 mm 10-21 m
Phyllostachys vivax 'Huangwenzhu' -23°C    
Phyllostachys vivax f. aureocaulis   30 mm 4-6 m
Phyllostachys vivax f. vittata      
Phyllostachys yunhoensis -7°C 30-40 mm 5-7 m
Entries Per Page
Page of

 

Recently Corrected Names in the Genus Phyllostachys

Bamboo species tables are monitored and improved each year by a wide group of experts. Below you'll find the latest updates for the genus Phyllostachys.

Old Name

New Name

Phyllostachys cerata Phyllostachys heteroclada
Phyllostachys congesta Phyllostachys atrovaginata
Phyllostachys decora Phyllostachys mannii 'Decora'
Phyllostachys heterocycla Phyllostachys edulis 'Heterocycla'
Phyllostachys heterocycla pubescens Phyllostachys edulis
Phyllostachys heterocycla pubescens 'Anderson' Phyllostachys edulis 'Anderson'
Phyllostachys purpurata Phyllostachys heteroclada 'Purpurata'
Phyllostachys purpurata 'Solidstem' Phyllostachys heteroclada 'Solidstem'
Phyllostachys purpurata 'Straightstem' Phyllostachys heteroclada

 

Common Names for Phyllostachys Species

Bamboo growers and garden books frequently refer to bamboos by their 'common names'. Below you'll find a table with the most common names for Phyllostachys and their correct scientific names.

More common names in English can be found here: Common Bamboo Names.

Common Name

Botanical Name

Black Bamboo Phyllostachys nigra
Golden Bamboo Phyllostachys aurea
Golden Golden Bamboo Phyllostachys aurea 'Holochrysa'
Japanese Timber Bamboo Phyllostachys bambusoides
Madake Bamboo Phyllostachys bambusoides
Moso Bamboo Phyllostachys edulis
Stone Bamboo Phyllostachys angusta & P. nuda
Sweetshoot Bamboo Phyllostachys dulcis
Tortoise Shell Bamboo Phyllostachys edulis 'Heterocycla'
Water Bamboo Phyllostachys heteroclada
Yellow Groove Bamboo Phyllostachys aureosulcata